military forces agent

Are we free to choose what we want to do later as a job? Or, are we under social and economic pressure to pursue jobs that are not necessarily what we want? 

Social determinism is the theory that holds that all human actions are determined by their prior states and that individuals have no willpower to change this determination. People in this system, therefore, have no free will and, if they believe they have it, they have only the appearance of it.

Based on this idea, I began a research project that focuses on the sociology of work in order to verify the veracity of social determinism in Morocco, through a visual sociology approach that uses images to illustrate this reality. The common thread was whether we are the actors of our own lives or whether we are under social pressure in deciding our career choices.

Mohammed: "As a child, I had a very difficult life, my father died in 1955, it was a woman my family knew who raised me, she had a little money and paid for my schooling. I was an intern in school from 1958 to 1962. In 1963, she didn't have much money left and I had to leave school. When she was still working, she bought me cinema magazines. We only had cinema, there was nothing else during that time, there was no TV or anything, we had TV in 1961. We use to wait impatiently for Saturday and Sunday to go to the cinema star or revival movie theaters. Going to the movies was like going to I don't know where, people wore their best clothes and there were good films and also good actors, not like now. One day, I had picked up a large quantity of cinema magazines and I went to sell them at a bookstore. He didn't give me a good price and I decided to sell them myself, directly, without an intermediary. That's how I got into the business." 

Fatima Zohra Lahouitar is a Moroccan Actress

Fatima Zohra: "I wanted to study scenography, because I like manual work, but also because I stammered a lot at the time. I did not use to do the oral exams in elementary school and did not read in class. However, I did not study scenography, because I realized after the two years of the core curriculum at ISADAC (Higher Institute of Dramatic Art and Cultural Animation) in Rabat, that when I was on stage, I did not stammer at all. I think because it's another story that I express and not mine, and I liked very much being on stage, so I chose the performance and the stage and became an actress. "

Mickey Mouse selling balloons

Zakaria is part of the National coordination of unemployed, visually impaired and blind graduates. He alternates on one side, by dressing up as Mickey Mouse selling balloons and taking pictures with kids, and on the other side by protesting every week to claim with his friends their right to work in the public sector. They are calling for immediate exceptional employment to « compensate » for the unfulfilled quota of 7% of positions dedicated to the disabled in the civil service, according to the decree adopted in 2016.

Moroccan farmer

Youssef: "My father was a farmer and when he had paralysis, I had to leave school and start helping him in the farm. In 1983, I became seriously mentally ill and lost my memory for few years, I started going to the sea with friends. Fishing and contemplating the sea made me feel better and I still do it today. Sooner or later, I'll buy a boat and will start fishing. "

Street photographer in Rabat

El Ghazi: " I have been working on Boulevard Mohammed V in Rabat as a photographer since 1972. I left school at grade 2 or grade 5 because my parents didn't have enough money so I could go to school. When I was younger, I wanted to become a civil servant"

Mechanic in Rabat

Rachid withdrew after the first picture, he wanted to be an Auxiliary Forces officer, but following his father's abandonment of his family, he was forced to start working to help his mother financially. He began to learn the trade of mechanic at 10 years of age.

Fashion designer

Bouchra: "My relationship with clothing is a love story that has developed through the years: since childhood, I was too demanding to choose my clothes and I watched a lot of fashion magazines, Vogues and Burdas. The love of getting dressed has taken a lot of importance in my life until I decided to make it my job. "

Taxi driver

Ahmed: "It's been four years since I'm a taxi driver. I did it all: worked in a cafe, a restaurant, a dairy and a grocery store. [...] I did not study, I left school very early, I was still a child, I do not remember when exactly. I watched the movies of Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan, I loved movies like that. So I did Taekwondo for a long time, after Kung Fu and Full Contact. I was looking forward to a career in martial arts. "

Barcassier Rabat salé

Abdellah: "I am a 'barcassier', I ensure the transport of people between the two banks of the Bouregreg, the crossing of the river which separates Rabat from Salé. Football requires to know powerful people and my family did not have much money. Afterwards, I got injured and could not make a career as a footballer. "

First Moroccan woman to have a circus diploma in Morocco

Fatima Zohra: "When I was 11, I wanted to become a surgeon and save my mother who was very sick, but my family could not afford to pay for school. One day, an association in Salé went to the poor neighborhoods to help children who could not afford to go to school and helped them to integrate school and circus. I was one of those children, I came to the school, and I liked it. After 2009, it became the National Circus School and I graduated. I am the first Moroccan woman to have a circus diploma in Morocco".


Abdellah: "I had no desire to work in education, but I was obliged to do it at the age of 20. It's a job that has suspended my academic career, more than a job I liked. [...] A circular by Azeddine El Iraki (former Minister of Education, later Prime Minister) served him to apply a policy that constrained students in education not to continue their higher studies. I followed a training in the regional pedagogic center, after it was forbidden for us to continue our studies at the faculty, the state policy at the time was in this direction and I was one of its victims. Otherwise, from a very young age, I was interested in books and I wanted to be a writer. "

Migrant Morocco Africa

Mamadou: "My name is Mohammed, I am of Guinean origin, I left home to do music and dance. Currently, I am in Morocco and I work as shoemaker. [...] I learned shoemaking in Morocco, I did not want to beg in the streets. I did not follow anny training, thanks to my intelligence and a little practice, I was able to learn on my own. "

Horse riding

Fransijn: "The equestrian professional world, we can not say that it saddens me, but there is a lot of money involved with it, financial stakes that change the contact we have with horses and respect towards animals, because it has become a financial asset. That's what made me change my mind about the equestrian world, but also because I saw that there were gifted people that were better than me. It was not logical for me with academic parents to go to work with the horses. This certainly plays a role, because we always have the look of our parents who follows us when we try to find our own path in life. Even if it would have interested me 70%, it did not stimulate me enough intellectually. I did literary studies and today I am responsible for press and culture at the Dutch Embassy in Morocco."

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